Styling With CSS

HTML & CSS

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets.

CSS describes how HTML elements are to be displayed on screen, paper, or in other media.

CSS saves a lot of work because It can control the layout of an entire web page, multiple web pages or an entire website all at once.

CSS can be added to HTML elements in 3 ways:

  • Inline– by using the style attribute in HTML elements
  • Internal– by using a <style> element in the <head> section
  • External– by using an external CSS file

The most common way to add CSS, is to keep the styles in separate CSS files with a .css extension. However, here we will use inline and internal styling, because this is easier to demonstrate, and easier for you to try it yourself.

Inline CSS

An inline CSS is used to apply a unique style to a single HTML element by using the style attribute of an HTML element.

Here the text of an <h1> heading element is set to cyan:
<h1 style="color:cyan;">This is a Cyan Heading</h1>

Internal CSS

An internal CSS is used to define a style for all of a single HTML page. The internal CSS is defined in the <head> section of an HTML page, within a <style> element:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
body {background-color: powderblue;}
h1   {color: blue;}
p    {color: red;}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

Save this HTML in file TestInternalCss.html

External CSS

An external style sheet is used to define the style for one or more HTML pages.

With an external style sheet, you can change the look of an entire web site, by changing just one file!

To use an external style sheet, add a link to it in the <head> section of the HTML page:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="../CSS/styles01.css">
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

Save this HTML in file TestExternalCss.html 

Before trying TestExternalCss.html,  we need an external style sheet called  styles01.css located in the CSS directory.

An external style sheet can be written in any text editor. The file must not contain any HTML code, and must be saved with a .css extension.

Here is how the “styles01.css” looks:

body {
    background-color: powderblue;
}
h1 {
    color: blue;
}
p {
    color: red;
}
Save  “styles01.css” in MyWebPages/CSS

Eric Pickstone